Sunday, January 25, 2009

New York: The Empire State (5)

Topic: Albany Pre 1940 (continue) #5

In the closing years of the century, migration forced the first road improvements and the development of a number of turnpikes radiating from the city. At the height of turnpike travel, 20 stagecoaches left Albany daily over the Cherry Valley route (now US 20). The first steamboat to make regular trips, the Clermont, built by Robert Fulton, steamed into the Albany harbor on August 19, 1807.

The Champlain Canal was opened in 1822, the trans-State Erie was completed in 1825. Albany built a pier 4,000 feet long, at which hundreds of canal boats could be handled at one time. Wheat from the Genesee Valley, salt and waterproof cement from Onondaga, butter, glass, and potash were unloaded on the Albany wharves. Packet lines carried pioneers to Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois. From 1820 to 1830 the population of the city doubled. IN 1831, 15,000 canal boats tied up at city wharves and 500 sailing ships in the coastal and West India trade cleared from Albany.

Within a few years after the appearance of the first canal boat came the first railroad. The diminutive De Witt Clinton made the first trip over the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad to Schenectady on September 24, 1831. The Hudson River Railroad, connecting New York City with Greenbush (now Rensselaer) across the river, was completed in 1851. The first steam-driven printing press in the country was operated here in 1828; the second telegraph instrument in the United States was installed here in 1845; the American Express Company was formed here in 1841. Cattleyards, developed at West Albany, at their peak handled 2,000,000 animals a year from midwestern ranges. (10)

Sources Utilized to Document Information


Kitchen Talk (3)

Subject: #3 Proper Care of Sink (1907)

The kitchen sink should not be littered with tea leaves and coffee grounds, or have visible coagulated fats. Grease coagulates upon the sides of the drain, which will become as hard as wax. Nine-tenths of the disastrous stoppages in the pipes that flood the kitchen floor with all manner of uncleanness and involve the expense of the costly plumber and his equally costly assistant, are the direct result of a collection of oil matter that should never have found its way into the sink at all.(By the way, why must a plumber invariably bring a helper along when one man could do all the work? Must the species always hunt in couples?) Have always on hand washing soda, which disintegrates the accumulation of grease..

Scald the sink every other day flushing the pipes by letting the hot water run when at its hottest and for ten minutes at a time. Water bugs are cousin-German to the cockroach. Our water bug was brought to our shores in the holds of German vessels. "Nocturnal in habits and very troublesome in houses, where they multiply with great rapidity, infesting kitchens and pantries and attacking provisions of all kinds. They have a very offensive smell." An ill-kept sink is their favorite resort.

Borax deserves prominence in the list of our helpers in the mission of freeing our premises of the loathly things. Old fashioned Southern housemothers knew not the "water bug" even by name. The native cockroach we have had from time immemorial. The aforesaid mothers used to boil pokeweed root in water, and mix the strong decoction with an equal quantity of black molasses. This was spread on bread and laid in the tracks of the nocturnal prowlers, which they ate ravenously. (1)

Source: The Washington Times July 14, 1907 Page: 12


Cook's Recipes: A Backward Glance (5)

Topic: Bread Sauce, Eggless Cookies, Scones (1897, 1901, 1907)

Bread Sauce

Place a saucepan with one pint of milk over the fire: add four tablespoonfuls grated bread crumbs (only the white part of the bread should be grated): add one onion, twelve whole pepper corns, one-quarter teaspoonful salt; cook ten minutes: take out the onion, add one large tablespoonful butter in small pieces: cook a few minutes; add last three tablespoonfuls cream: strain through a sieve and serve with boiled chicken.

If the expense is not minded, mix the yolks of two eggs with half cupful cream and add it just before serving to the sauce. Care must be taken not to let the sauce boil after the yolks have been added. (1)

Eggless Cookies

Take two-thirds of a cup of melted butter (not oily), one and one-half cups of sour (not too thick) cream, two cups of sugar, a pinch of soda, and enough flour to roll out easily. Stir the butter and cream together, then add the sugar and beat well. Add the soda to the flour and mix into a smooth dough, roll out, cut and bake in a quick oven. Keep all the materials as cold as possible while mixing, rolling and cutting, and the cakes will require less flour and be very much nicer and crisper. (2)


Sift two even teaspoonfuls of baking powder twice, with two cups of flour, chop into the flour four tablespoonfuls of butter, adding a little milk to bind the flour. Roll into a sheet three-quarters of an inch thick; cut into squares with a sharp knife: bake it a quick oven, taking them out as soon as they are evenly colored to a light brown. (3)

Apricot Tart

Line a pie plate with a good puff paste. Drain the juice from enough canned apricots to fill your pie, and lay twisted strips of puff paste across the top in diamond shapes. Bake in a hot oven. Serve very cold. (3)

Source: (1) Brooklyn Daily Eagle September 26, 1897 Page: 17
(2) Brooklyn Eagle October 22, 1901 Page: 14
(3) The Washington Times July 14, 1907 Page: 12


Tuesday, January 20, 2009

Jewish Knowledge (9)

Topic: Jewish Tid-Bits Brooklyn #3

Among the Jewish residents of Brooklyn in the 1850s and 1860s were three refugees from the 1848 revolutions in Europe who helped make American history: Dr. Joseph Goldmark, Sigismund Kaufmann and Michael Heilprin.

Physician, chemist and leader in the March 1848 revolution in Vienna, Goldmark fled to America in 1850. He resided in Brooklyn from 1858 until some years after the civil war, manufacturing percussion caps and cartridges in a Brooklyn factory for the Union Army. In 1863, draft rioters set fire to the factory. One of those detailed to protect the premises from further attack was Solomon Furth, first president of Congregation Beth Israel and a member of a National guard cavalry regiment. Goldmark's daugher, Alice, became the wife of Louis D. Brandeis.

Kaufmann, who had participated in the German revolution of 1848 and settled in Brooklyn about 1849, was a founder of the Republican Party in Brooklyn, as was Goldmark. Employed in a pocketbook factory by day, he taught French and German at night and also studied law. When General John Fremont became the Republican Party's first presidential nominee in 1856, Kaufmann campaigned for him. He was one of the draft board judges in 1863 when New York and Brooklyn were bedeviled by draft riots. Three years prior to that he had been named a Lincoln presidential elector. When Lincoln became President, he offered Kaufmann an appointment as minister to Italy, but Kaufmann declined.

In 1869, Kaufmann was an unsuccessful candidate for the state senate from Brooklyn, and the following year he was defeated as the Republican nominee for lieutenant governor. A key figure in the German-American Turn Verein, Kaufmann presided over the meeting that resulted in the establishment of the Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum in 1878.

Heilprin, a political refugee from Hungary, was a well known Jewish scholar. Morris Hess was one of Brooklyn's most ardent supporters of Lincoln. Frederick Loeser and Abraham Abrahams, founders of well-known mercantile establishments, were in Brooklyn by 1865. (28)

Sources Utilized to Document Information


East Harlem, New York

Italian Harlem also called East Harlem
Topic: Feast of Mount Carmel 1920

Ten thousand Italian men, women and children, all bare-footed, made their way on Friday and yesterday, many of them having left their homes the evening before, to the Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, 449 East 115th Street, on their annual pilgrimage in celebration of Our Lady of Mary's Day.

The pilgrims made the journey from all parts of the Bronx, Manhattan, Brooklyn and many points in North Jersey and Long island, to worship before a statue of the Blessed Virgin in the basement of the church, which is a landmark in Little Italy.

The clergy, under the direction of the Rev. Anthony Mueller, the pastor, endeavored to arrange the hours for masses and other devotions so that all could attend. The other members of the Fathers of the Pious Society of Missions, in charge of the church, are the Rev. Scipio Tofini, the Rev. Henry Mezzatesta and the Rev. Hector Messena.

Masses began at 4 o'clock in the morning and were offered each hour up to noon, on both days.

Hundreds of the pilgrims, here overnight, slept in Jefferson Park. Others rested in stores and shops of the neighborhood, practically all of which kept open. The pilgrims traveled bare-footed to expiate sins committed during the year.

Although all Italian business was suspended, chairs and tables were supplied and the stores kept open for visitors from a distance. Thursday and Friday nights Jefferson Park contained about 5,000 Italians, and five blocks in First and Second Avenues were crowded with men and women waiting their turn to get into the old church.

The majority of pilgrims carried wax reproductions of various parts of the human body, representing parts afflicted with disease or disfiguration. The bearers laid the pieces of wax in the church in the belief that the Blessed Virgin would obliterate the physical defects. Many of the pilgrims also carried huge wax candles ornamented with religious pictures and symbols. They brought gifts of money also to express their thanks for the blessings of the year.

Source: The New York Times July 18, 1920 Page: 30;

For a great learning experience about this festivity and Italian Harlem visit Al Guerra's "Our Lady of Mount Carmel of East Harlem website."


Timetables (5)

Topic: Colonization: 17th & 18th Centuries

1607: Jamestown is founded in Virginia by the British. Its leader, John Smith, is captured by the Powhatan Confederacy and supposedly, saved by Pocahontas.

1620: Pilgrims landing at Plymouth, Massachusetts, are helped by Wampanoag leader Massasoit and Squanto, a Patuxet.

1622: An uprising by the Powhatan Confederacy nearly wipes out the Jamestown settlement, killing some 350 settlers, and initiating a decade of hostilities. By 1645, Indian resistance ends.

1626: Peter Minuit buys Manhattan island from the Canarsie Indians for 60 guilders (the proverbial $24); although that amount was then equal to several thousand dollars, the island was still dramatically underpriced.

1636-1637: The Pequots are wiped out in the Pequot War, a campaign deliberately waged by the Puritans.

1642-1653: The Hurons and Iroquois clash over the fur trade in a war instigated and supplied by the Dutch and the French. The defeated Hurons withdraw west, to Michigan, Wisconsin, and western Ontario while the victorious Iroquois sign a peace treaty with the French.

1675-1676: King Philip's War pits the New England colonists against the Wampanoags, Narragansetts, and Nipmucks: it is the last major Indian-white war in New England and drives the Indians out of the region, with the exception of Maine.

1676: In Bacon's Rebellion, Nathaniel Bacon and a band of vigilante followers eradicate the Pamunkey Indians.

Mid to late 1600s: Intermittent warfare on the frontier continues between the Dutch and the Indians and the British and the Indians.

1680: Pueblos rebel against the Spanish in the Southwest and drive them out for twelve years. In 1692, the Spanish reconquest of New Mexico ends with reoccupation of Santa Fe.

1689-1748: Native Americans play a key role in three wars involving France, Spain, and Britain: King Williams's War (1689-1697), Queen Anne's War (1702-1713), and King George's War (1744-1748). Various Indian nations ally with either the French or the English. (31)

Sources Utilized to Document Information


Cook's Recipes: A Backward Glance (4)

Topic: Tomato Toast With Poached Eggs, Chicken Curry with Curried Rice, Potato Pancakes (1897 & 1898) #4

Tomato Toast With Poached Eggs

Place one can tomatoes in a saucepan over the fire, add one teaspoonful salt, one quarter teaspoonful pepper, one tablespoonful butter and the same of sugar; cook fifteen minutes. In the meantime cut six thin slices of bread, cut off the corners so as to give them a nice round shape, toast the bread to a fine golden color and butter it, lay the toast on a long platter, pour over the tomatoes and lay a poached egg in center of each piece of toast.

Poached Eggs

Place a large frying pan with boiling water over the fire; and half teaspoonful salt and two tablespoonsful vinegar, as soon as the water boils, crack an egg and hold it close to the water, open the shell and let the egg slip into the water, continue until all the eggs are in the pan, then draw the pan to side of stove, where it stops boiling. As soon as the white is firm take them out carefully with a flat skimmer and lay one egg on each piece of toast and serve. (B.D.E. 1/26/1897)

Chicken Curry

Clean, wash and cut a nice, plump chicken of three and a half pounds in weight into ten pieces, place in a saucepan, cover with boiling water, add one tablespoonful salt, half teaspoonful pepper, a bouquet and two medium sized white onions; cover and cook till tender. Then melt two ounces butter in a saucepan, add two tablespoonfuls flour, stir and cook two minutes; add one tablespoonful curry powder, mix it well with the butter and flour; then strain the chicken broth; add it to the butter and flour, stir and cook till smooth, mix the yolks of two eggs with one tablespoonful lemon juice; add it to the sauce. Arrange the chcken on a hot dish; pour over the sauce, and lay a border of rice around it or garnish with rice timbales.

Curried Rice

Wash one pound best rice, place it in a saucepan, cover with two quarts of boiling water, and one teaspoonful of salt, cover and cook till the rice is soft but not broken: drain off the water, rinse off several times with cold water, return the rice to the saucepan, put on the lid and set the saucepan for a half hour on side of stove to dry. Shortly before serving place a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls butter and two medium sized fine chopped white onions over the fire, stir and cook about five minutes, not allowing the onions to obtain any color; then add one heaping tablespoonful curry powder, stir and cook five minutes over a slow fire; then place the rice in a dish, pour over the curry sauce and mix it well with two forks, then serve.

Potato Pancakes

Pare, wash and grate twelve large, raw potatoes; mix with one teaspoonful salt and the yolks of three eggs; beat the whites to a stiff froth; add the potatoes slowly to the whites. Place a large frying pan with one tablespoonful fat over the fire; as soon as hot, put small portions from the mixture with a spoon into the hot fat, to form cakes the size of a saucer; bake light brown on both sides; transfer them to a hot plate and serve with apple sauce or any kind of stewed fruit. (B.D.E. 3/27/1898)


Historical Facts on England & United States (5)

Topic: Years of 1640-1642

1640: (England) Eight postal lines running in England.

1640: (England) Short Parliament (Apr-May) and Long Parliament (Nov-1653) in England.

1640: (North America) In May, 1640, the English attempted to make a settlement on a tract of land on the east side of Great Neck, near the Town of Hempstead. This land had been purchased by Daniel How from the Indians. The settlers were prevented from locating by Kieft, the Dutch Governor. The settlers removed to Southampton where they purchased a tract of land from the Indians and commenced a settlement there in December 1640, which was the foundation of that town.* (b.d.e. 8/8/1886).

1640. (North America) ) The first attempt of the English to establish themselves within the present bounds of Queens County, was in the township of Hempstead, and in the spring of 1640.

1641: (England) Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, the King's chief adviser, beheaded.

1641: (England) "Diurnal Occurrences, " a weekly periodical issued in London.

1641: (North America) Gardiner's Island, a place of 3300 acres was settled by Lyon Gardiner in 1641, A Scotchman.

1641: (North America) In 1641 Kieft instituted two annual fairs for the encouragement of agriculture, the first for cattle to be held on October 15th and second for hogs on November 1st, upon the Bowling Green.

1642:(England) Charles I marches to Westminster to arrest five members of the Commons; attempt fails; he flees with his family to Hampton Court; Queen Henrietta Maria leaves England for Holland.

1642: (England) Eng. Civil War begins with raising of royal standard at Nottingham; Earl of Essex commands Parliamentary forces; indecisive battle at Edgehill; Cavaliers, the king's supporters, take Marlborough; his opponents, the Roundheads, take Winchester.

1642: (England) All theaters in England closed by order of the Puritans (--1660).

1642: (England) Income and property tax introduced in England.

1642: (North America) Jochem Pietersen Kuyter originally from Darmstadt, had been in the Danish service in the East Indies. He was persuaded by the West India Company to emigrate to this country, and brought hither his family in 1639. He was the first deacon of the new church, built in 1642.

1642: (North America) ) Soon after its settlement Flushing was visited by Quakers. They first settled in Gravesend, but later, because of their persecution by Governor Stuyvesant, they moved easterly and settled in other towns. A leader among them was John Bowne, the chief of the Bowne family in Flushing, who in 1642 built a house on Whitestone avenue, but later built one on Bowne avenue, which is now owned by Mrs. Robert B. Parsons, and which bears the date of 1661.John Bowne was sent to Holland in 1662, by order of Governor Stuyvesant, to be punished for the heinous crime of Quakerism, but the Dutch authorities, who believed that the consciences of men ought to be free and unshackled, released him and he returned in triumph to his friends in 1663.* B.D.E. 5/20/1894)


Friday, January 2, 2009

Main Directory: Mimi Speaks Blog (1)

A Blog is a frequently updated journal or diary, also called a "Web log," which is a specialized site that allows an individual or group of individuals to share a running log of events and personal insights with online audiences. A Blog is a publication of a mixture of personal thoughts, experiences, and web links. Some blogging sites may provide a variety of topics that may be of interest to the public, such as in my case where I love to talk about New York City , New York State and American History as well as life itself.

There are many people who love to read blogs, but just don't have the time to go through it's entire contents trying to find something that may be of interest to them. Usually when people approach a blog, they like to go quickly from one thing to the next. As for actually reading the text, there is little evidence of that unless the subject matter should catch their eye, then it becomes worthwhile.

Since my blog was started in 2007, there have been postings of over 300 tid-bits of information, which talk about history, life situations, goals and success. New updates will continue to be posted regularly. So my dear reader, for your benefit, I am making every attempt to improve the navigation to this treasure trove of information as quickly as possible. For this purpose I have created a table of contents divided by categories, for easy accessing. However if there is something that may interest you, I suggest you find yourself a comfortable chair, and while you're at it, grab a steaming hot cup of coffee and a bagel with cream cheese and you'll be all set to settle down for a while. So happy reading.


(A. ) Getting To Know Mimi (B.) N.Y.C. History (C.) East Harlem
(D.) Spanish Harlem (E.) Black Harlem (F.) New York State (G.) Urban/Suburban Living Issues

Table of Contents (3)
(H.) Chit-Chat Over Coffee Swirls

Table of Contents (4)
(I.) Jewish Knowledge (J.) Self-Improvement (K.) Historical Facts On England & United States

Table of Contents (5)
(L.) Miscellaneous (M.) Timetables (N.) Ethnic Groups (O.) Legal Talk
(P.) Entertainment: Backward Glances (Q.) Immigration

Table of Contents (6)
(R.) Women__Bio Sketches, Feminine Fancies, Recipes, Kitchen Talk.
(S.) Worship

Table of Contents (7)
(T.) A Little Taste of History, (U.) U.S. History-Transportation, (V) U.S. History-Panics, Economic Depressions

Table of Contents (8)
(W) ¿Habla Español?
(This section dedicated to articles of historical facts, poetry, self-improvement, human interest stories etc. written in Spanish)

Table of Contents (9)
(X) So Mr. President, What Did You Do During Your Term in Office....? (The Series)



"How To Remain Hopeful In The Midst of the Worst Financial Crisis Since the Great Depression" (6)

In closing, I would like you to stop and think about this for a moment. America has always been a safe haven for many who have suffered in their countries tremendous hardships, Wars, calamities generating poverty, racial prejudices, religious persecution, and political oppression.

Centuries ago, a great mass of emigrants from various origins left their places of birth in pursuit of the "American Dream", which symbolized for them democracy, equality, liberty, justice and most of all material well-being. "The American Dream" a term first used by James Truslow Adams in his book the Epic of America, written in 1931 is stated as such: "The American Dream is "that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position."

For millions of immigrants, the Statue of Liberty in the New York Harbor was their first glimpse of America. Lady Liberty, " Enlightening the World," was a symbol of democracy, of freedom of expression and religious beliefs.

America has always been viewed as a country of opportunity. Ours is a nation built on immigration. Its mixture of culture, races and languages combined to make us the great, diverse and respected nation that we are today. Our remarkable democratic structure has been contributed to this diversity. We depend on each other.

Our early ancestors, in pursuit of the American Dream and the "Hope" that it inspired, dared to explore new horizons, freedom of choices and action , enduring great injustices, inhumanities, and severe hardships, as they were woven into the texture of the American life. Often stereotyped and discriminated against, they suffered verbal and physical abuse because they were "different." Yet, undaunted by poverty, illiteracy , discrimination and discouragement, they sacrificed and toiled incessantly making major contributions to the economic strength of America and to a richer cultural diversity in the field of arts, music, education, language and cuisine. The new image created out of the foreign wilderness helped mold and maintain the enterprise system that has made America what it is today, the financial center of the World. Whether they worked on the farms, in the factories, building railroads, bridges, towns and cities, their rewards were greater than any land could ever offer... America is a nation among all nations. A nation where every citizen enjoys his or her freedom especially in the area of choice and opportunity, in comparison with the restricted freedom found in other countries. Now centuries later, America is still providing this same freedom and opportunities that our ancestors pursued, in whose footsteps we follow. The American Dream is still ours to embrace.

Our forefathers had great courage, faith and hope in maintaining the right mental attitude in the midst of such negative external forces. Their example should be an inspiration to all of us. I believe we can also learn some lessons from them. With courage and faith we will mentally prepare ourselves, to be able to control and cope with today which will help us to find solace in the midst of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Today is our chance to lay a good foundation for tomorrow. Let’s set our feet firmly on this path of Faith and Hope and get ready to walk through extraordinary times for we are more than conquerors, not quitters. America! Now is the time to roll up our sleeves, and get tough. Be a witness to the wonders that life will provide. Yes we can and we will overcome!

Miriam Medina is the author of this essay.

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"How To Remain Hopeful In The Midst of the Worst Financial Crisis Since the Great Depression" (5)

4. Start Building Your Self-Confidence
Although you may have taken a big loss in business deals, which has plunged your family into a severe economic hardship, you must not forget that you still have the creativity and ingenuity with which you originally started out with and can start over again in something else using this same creativity and ingenuity which will result in a much more successful and prosperous accomplishment.Hidden deep within ourselves is an incredible and inexhaustible source of creative ideas, just waiting for us to make use of them. Musicians, authors, scientists, inventors, designers, artists, etc. over the centuries have successfully learned the secret of tapping into the hidden talents that are within them, and developing them to its fullest. It is so amazing how many creative ideas that are born out of extreme necessity. The same inventive spirit found in the American people during the prosperous years, can also be demonstrated during the worst.

5. This is not the Time to Procrastinate
Decision making can at times, be mentally exhausting. People who are indecisive as the saying goes "grow grass under their feet." They are called procrastinators which is the opposite of being a decisive person. Because of their insecurities, they are in constant turmoil. It takes them forever to make a decision as to their choice, holding out constantly, looking for even better possibilities, which may never come. In the meantime, they are letting wonderful opportunities slip by. Indecision creates an unsettled condition in your mind and body. As long as you are an indecisive person, you are helpless and won't be able to move in any direction with complete assurance, unless you are guaranteed that the step you will take in making changes is safe and secure. If and when you do decide don't allow yourself to be harassed with anxiety on whether or not it was the right choice. Work with whatever you have and move forward, taking advantage of the opportunities that surround you and let the results speak for themselves.” Where there is a will, there is a way."

6. Finally, Don’t be discouraged!
No one is immune to discouragement. Remember temporary defeat is not failure. Sometimes failure to attain the results you are expecting may lead unexpectedly to another of a more rewardingly experience. Allowing the discouragement to dominate your thoughts will hold you back from progress, preventing that creative power from working through you. In giving your attention to the positive; you will be amazed at how the influential people that are needed, the right opportunities and favorable situations will present themselves in order to bring your desire to a successful completion.

Final Part: (6) Music/Video

"How To Remain Hopeful In The Midst of the Worst Financial Crisis Since the Great Depression" (4)

1. Plan Your Strategy

Put the remote aside for the moment, so you are not distracted and get yourself a pad and pencil and keep it handy. One must develop a plan as detailed as you need to determine your course of action regarding the object of your worry. Whatever comes to your mind jot it down and save everything. Just as Ideas or thoughts appear suddenly they also leave just as quickly. It is also important to be flexible and not criticize these ideas as they come or to reject them because they don't fit into what you are planning to do. There will be a time later, when you feel to some level you have enough thoughts/ideas written down, then you could be selective as to what you wish to use, eliminating or storing the rest for future reference.

Now after you develop a plan and it does not successfully work then you continue replacing it with a new plan until you find one that does work. When you go this route, it creates confidence in your ability to handle any situation.

2. If You Want To Excel the Calamities, Get Rid of Self Limitation
For some people making changes may come easy, while for others it is extremely difficult. We can at times be our own worst enemy. Some individuals would sell themselves short, underestimating their own potentials. This is not the time to set up barriers by limiting yourself with "I cant's," and other forms of self-condemnation and self-limitation. When one changes the belief about one's self, then the outward experiences will be changed also. Forget the inferiority complex and the expression that "nobody is hiring". . Remember, even in these hard times there are businesses out there that are still thriving and offering job opportunities. If there is an opportunity seize it without hesitation... Also don't sell yourself short by focusing on your lack of the necessary education and qualifications to be hired in the job position you are applying to. Remember, sometimes the best educated person is self-made. So if you are still having a tough time with this, then take some courses, familiarizing yourself with all the latest updated information in that area of choice. . If you can't afford the special courses, then go to your local public library which contains a treasure trove of information that is free.

3. Self Direction
Remember, we are not "at the mercy of Fate," as the expression says "Que será, será...what will be will be.", thus clouding any possibilities for a better future. Self-direction is what motivates us to pick up the pieces and start all over again. In order for you to achieve whatever you set out to do, you must believe in whatever you wish to achieve, accept its possibility and confidently expect it to be realized, and in doing so you will lift your thoughts, and your vision to see beyond your needs, circumstances, or conditions that surround you, which will result in fear turning to courage and confidence, anxiety to calmness, and despair to faith and hope.

"How To Remain Hopeful In The Midst of the Worst Financial Crisis Since the Great Depression" (3)

A skeptic would probably say: “Faith? Hope? Get real lady, you don't even have a clue of what I and others like me are going through!" "It's just not that easy!" "You're definitely not in our shoes!"

Believe me, I am not being unsympathetic. I do understand your anger and my heart feels your anguish. I agree that there are circumstances that are totally out of our control, while others are of our own making. Economic distress is suffered by all groups within the community. Each person's situation is genuinely real and completely different. While some have undergone substantial losses, others have suffered less. Nevertheless, no one's distress is in anyway less acute than the other. The current uncertainty in our economy, especially not knowing how bad it will get before it gets better again, makes options extremely limited.

Though I have good cause for worry, I really don't want it to become an obsession disturbing my sleep and influencing my daily activities. So if I maintain a positive attitude toward the problem that I am facing, this will remove my attention from the object of worry and place me in a state of calmness without turmoil and agitation. In doing so, this will enable me to think with clarity and help me to exercise self-control in dealing with my circumstances. One has to meet his or her problem in a positive constructive way, no matter how dismal it may seem. There are those who have accepted the challenge and have been successful. Again it is not what happens to us, but HOW we react to it that counts. So we all need to start right, because when we start right on this journey of faith and hope, half of the battle is won.

I am not claiming to be an expert on these matters, but I would still like to share some thoughts with you in the hopes that you will find them helpful in taking that journey of Faith and Hope. Remember starting all over again takes a lot of courage, faith and determination.

One of the many things that I love about America is that it offers a wide range of occupational positions in every field you could possibly think of... So if you are unemployed, what you have to do is decide what kind of a job you want, even in these difficult times, then analyze your talents and capabilities which you wish to offer and go after it. It's important that you remain flexible ; not getting yourself locked in to one way of doing things. If you can't find a job, then create one. For example: If you were a bookkeeper, you could approach small businesses and see if they need someone to help them with their accounting for a negotiable fee. If you are able to get a few accounts, this at least will give you an incentive to get motivated, get out of bed and become productive once again. Yes, you can achieve success even through the worst of financial crisis by getting back on track of practicing faith and hope.

To be continued: (4)

"How To Remain Hopeful In The Midst of the Worst Financial Crisis Since the Great Depression" (2)

First and foremost, it is clear that there are no immediate solutions for fixing the current financial crisis; nor is there a magic wand we can wave to stabilize the national and global economy which may give us back our jobs, our homes and restore our financial state of well being. So what then? HOW should we respond to this economic crisis? What we need to do above all as Americans is to have faith, faith in God and faith in our capacity to deal with and overcome each challenge that we are confronted with. The United States has passed through several notable financial crisis, such as the ones in 1815,1819,1837, 1857,1869, 1873, 1893, 1901 and 1907, with the exception of 1837, 1893 and 1929.These years were defined as "major depressions because of the depth and duration of the collapse . Some attribute these panics to overexpansion and debts, overextended notes and discounts, overinvestment and falling prices, etc.

The Roaring Twenties were prosperous years, where Americans spent money recklessly. It was a unique dramatic era in all of its aspect. "America was enjoying an era of great prosperity." Economic expansion created booming business profits which in turn raised the standard of living for most Americans.

By 1928 everyone was singing praises to the glory days of America. It was a time when American businessmen and economists were feeling overly confident that the erratic fluctuations in the business cycle were finally under control. They were not even curious about the terrible sense of foreboding of some impending doom that was looming over the nation like a black cloud. Little did they know at the time that this would be a rude awakening for the "American Dream" of many, which they undoubtedly would be caught unprepared.

In Wall street you would find the most daring and shrewd intellect of the nation who could produce a panic in an instant and shake the world's foundation. No man can tell one week whether he would be a beggar or a millionaire the next. While one man made a fortune by a sudden rise in stocks or gold, one thousand would be ruined. Even the soundest and best established firms fell with a crash under these sudden reverses. The image of the once powerful, self-confident, successful men walking briskly to and fro is obviously replaced by one of nervous pacing, distress and cries of despair as they witness the crumbling of their world. Much of their failure was attributed to stock speculations, business deals gone wrong and extravagant living. Unable to cope with their losses, there are those that have suffered nervous breakdowns, heart attacks, or committed suicide, leaving their families financially unprotected and homeless.

The Panic of 1929 and the ensuing depression were the most terrible the nation had ever suffered. "The stock market crash on October 23, 1929 wiped out an average of more than a billion dollars worth of paper values a day. A staggering total of 15 million were unemployed, and those who continued to work did so under greatly reduced wage scales." The flow of capital into productive enterprise slowed down to a trickle. The country was suffering from under consumption not overproduction. Banks were weighted down with government bonds, real estate mortgages based on greatly appreciated valuations, and highly speculative securities. Although, each of these crisis with its unpleasant consequences culminated in "Hard Times" for the American people, the country still survived, returning to business as usual, resuming its former prosperity and growth, yet ignoring the lessons of the past..

However, once again, we find ourselves currently facing a new financial dilemma; this time, one of greater magnitude. Now, more than ever we are in desperate need of Faith to deal with the immense problems ahead of us and hope that there will be a "business as usual," in the near future.

The general over-all picture is looking quite dismal and apprehension has been clouding everyone's thoughts. Most people are feeling depressed and out of sorts, afraid to think of the future. The loss of income has forced many to make drastic changes to their lifestyles. Fear of the unemployment check ending or their savings being depleted is constantly before them. Yet, we cannot linger and wallow in negative attitudes and emotions. If we are to face the future with any kind of strength, the first thing we need to do is to discourage and eliminate those negative emotions driven by fear, panic, anxiety, and despair and substitute it with positive emotions. A negative mind does not inspire courage, faith or belief. "A mind dominated by positive emotions, becomes a favorable abode for the state of mind known as faith." (Napoleon Hill)

The Readers Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary defines faith as: 1) Confidence in or dependence on a person, statement, or thing as trustworthy: trust. 2) Belief without need of certain proof. 3) Belief in God or in testimony about God as recorded in Scriptures or other religious writings. Then what is hope? "Hope," is to desire with expectation of fulfillment.

The emotion of faith is the most powerful of all positive emotions. By keeping your faith strong you will believe that you can and will achieve whatever you are determined to accomplish. But if you allow the element of fear to be the dominating factor instead, then it will fill you with doubts and unbelief in your ability to connect and produce a successful outcome to whatever your situation may be. First and foremost, try starting this day by being grateful for what you DO have and give thanks for it.

To be continued: (3)