Monday, April 28, 2008

Table Of Contents : Mimi Speaks Blog

There are many people who love to read blogs, but just don't have the time to waste, or are in the mood to go through it's entire contents trying to find something that may be of interest to them. Usually when people approach a blog, they like to go quickly from one thing to the next. As for actually reading the text, there is little evidence of that unless the subject matter should catch their eye, then it becomes worthwhile.

Since my blog was started in 2007, there have been postings of 201 tid-bits of information, which talk about history, life situations, goals and success. So my dear reader, for your benefit, I am making every attempt to improve the navigation to this treasure trove of information as quickly as possible. For this purpose I have created a table of contents divided by categories, for easy accessing. However if there is something that may catch your eye, I suggest you find yourself a comfortable chair, and while you're at it, grab a steaming hot cup of coffee and a bagel with cream cheese and you'll be all set to settle down for a while. So happy reading.


(A. ) Getting To Know Mimi (B.) N.Y.C. History (C.) East Harlem
(D.) Spanish Harlem (E.) Black Harlem (F.) New York State

Table of Contents (3)
(G.) Chit-Chat Over Coffee Swirls

Table of Contents (4)
(H.) Jewish Knowledge (I) Self-Improvement (J) Historical Facts On England & United States

Table of Contents (5)
(K) Miscellaneous (L) Timetables (M) Ethnic Groups (N) Legal Talk
(O) Entertainment: Backward Glances (P) Immigration

Table of Contents (6)
(Q) Women__Bio Sketches, Feminine Fancies, Recipes, Kitchen Talk.
(R) Worship

Table of Contents (7)
(S) A Little Taste of History

Table of Contents (8)
(W) ¿Habla EspaƱol?



A Little Taste of History (11)

Topic: New York City's Places of Amusement 1868

The Academy of Music
On fourteenth street and Irving Place, comes first on the list. It is generally occupied by the Italian Opera, but lately has been used for various purposes. It is one of the largest public halls in the world, and is handsomely fitted up.

Pike's Opera House
Its located on Twenty-third street and Eighth Avenue, rivals the Academy in the beauty and taste of its internal arrangements. The entrance is through a magnificent marble building, also the property of Mr. Pike, which is one of the ornaments of the city.

Booth's Theatre
It is located on Twenty-third street and Sixth Avenue, is a handsome freestone edifice. It is the property of Mr. Edwin Booth, the famous tragedian. It is devoted exclusively to the legitimate drama, and will be conducted in a style worthy of the fame of its distinguished proprietor.

Brougham's Theatre
It is located in the rear of the Fifth Avenue Hotel, was used during the war for the night sessions of the Gold Board. It is a handsome little building, elegantly arranged internally, and is conducted by Mr. John Brougham, the famous comedian and author.

Its location is on the corner of Broadway and Twelfth street, is one of the coziest and best conducted places of amusement in the city. It is the property of Mr. Lester Wallack, and is devoted to the legitimate drama. It has the best company in the city, and the two Wallacks are to be seen here alone.

The Olympic
This was built for Laura Keene, but has now passed into other hands. It is a well arranged, pleasant hall, and for the last year has been famous as the headquarters of that eccentric individual called "Humpty Dumpty." It is in Broadway below Bleecker street.

It is in the rear of the Metropolitan Hotel. It is a large comfortable hall, handsomely fitted up. It is devoted entirely to the sensational drama. It was here that those splendid spectacles, the "Black Crook" and the "White Fawn," were produced in such magnificent style. (13)


Sunday, April 27, 2008

A Little Taste Of History (10)

Happenings During the 1900s In NYC #1

The Brooklyn Bridge Rescue Mission
121 Fulton Street
"Rev. Perry N. Cedarholm, Superintendent

On Thursday evening, march 29, 1928, The Brooklyn Bridge Rescue Mission was opened to the public. With a large electric cross on the exterior of the building to point and light the way, this Mission for over three years has held nightly meetings, has given food, clothing and night's lodgings, etc., to hundreds of individuals who were friendless, homeless and penniless, and through spiritual aid has helped many back to hope, belief and a revived faith in Christ and His teachings.

Hudson Avenue Boys' Club
377 Hudson Avenue
Mr. L.C. Bruce, Director
This work was organized in 1927 and is the outgrowth of a work of long standing conducted in this building for the Colored People of this immediate neighborhood. it is one of the most needy fields in Brooklyn and the results of the program for colored boys is already being felt.

Brownsville Community Center
Late in 1930 a community program in this section was begun. The first six months' activities were conducted in the First Baptist and St. Paul Baptist Churches, the clubs being held in the former and the Week-day and one department of the Daily Vacation Bible School, in the latter. But the work increased so rapidly that it was necessary to find quarters which would be open to the community every day, all day. In May the work was moved to 187 Osborn Street. (12)

Sources Utilized to Document A Little Taste Of History

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Tuesday, April 22, 2008

Chit-Chat Over Coffee Swirls (15)

Topic: History of Education in NYC

The history of education in New York dates from 1629, when the West Indies Company, under whose charge the first Dutch colonists came to the city, enacted a law which required the establishment of sehools. Four years later the first school was opened, and in 1652 the first public school came into being, and was established in the City Hall. After the English obtained possession of the colony education suffered for a few years because of the conflict in languages, the Dutch adhering to the language of their mother country.

In 1704 a society for the propagation of the Gospel began the work of establishing schools in the English language, and in 1732 an act was passed to establish a public school in the city. Early in 1748 two schools were erected, one by Trinity, in Rector street, and another by the Dutch Reformed Church, in what is now Exchange Place. Many private educational institutions existed, some of them under the jurisdiction of religious bodies and depending on them for support.

New York at first encouraged private schools, and when the Board of Regents of the University of New York was created, in 1784, its chief function for many years was to encourage academies and colleges. It is to the credit of that board, however, that it presented to the legislature many propositions for the founding of a school system which would tend to the establishment of common schools. In 1795 Governor Clinton urged the creation of the New England type of common schools, and through the legislature a fund was created for the successful carrying out of the scheme. In 1797 free schools were established in the State.

The necessity for more schools became apparent, and in 1811 the Trinity corporation gave two lots on the corner of Hudson and Grove streets for a third school. In 1815 and 1819 two "African schools" were built,one on ground in William street given by the corporation, and the other by the Manumission Society on ground in Mulberry street, "which cost $2,400." The existence of the old Public School Society ceased in 1853, and all its rights and belongings passed to the Board of education.

Source: Cradle Days of New York (1609-1825) by Hugh Macatamney; New York-Drew & Lewis, Publishers 1909 has two sections that relate to Education and have interesting information..Education and Resources For A Great Classroom Day.


Monday, April 21, 2008

A Little Taste Of History (9)

Happenings During The 1800s In NYC #2

The Park Theatre was opened on September 14, 1863 by Mr. Gabriel Harrison, a sincere friend of the nobler drama, an actor of acknowledged ability, and ca citizen of some years' standing. A better selection could not have been made, and his failure, after a short season, was a matter of universal regret. Mrs. F.B. Conway assumed the management on April 2d, 1864. She still has it being now in her fifth season.

In 1829, at the solicitation of Mr. Edwin, comedian, from Niblo's Garden, the large refreshment saloon at Duflon's Military Garden was converted into a theatre, capable of comfortably accommodating some eight hundred people. The theatre was opened on the 19th of June with much eclat. The entertainment commenced with a grand vocal and instrumental concert, in which the following artists participated; Mr. Beargfelt, first violin; Mr. Koights, second violin; Mr. Jackson, tenor; Mr. D. Contra, basso; Mr. Senio, flute; Mr. C. Centra, clarionet; Mr. P. Torse, bugle; Mr. Boynson, trumpet; Mr. E.C. Petre, ditto Mr. Marino, ditto, and Mr. G. Dago, trombone; after which Mons. Chekin's pupils danced Madarin pas de Quatre; a new vandeville was then performed, when the entertainment was closed with a superb display of fireworks.

Academy of Music was opened in January, 1861, with great eclat, a prominent citizen, in the dedicatory address invoking the divine blessing upon the institution. As its name would imply, the Academy of Music was originally intended only for oepratic and musical performances, chiefly those of the Philharmonic Society, but it had not been opened many months before the late Mr. Rarey gave a "horse show" there, and wiser and more liberal counsels prevailing, ere the expiration of the year, after much debate, to be sure, it was thrown open to the drama. Manager Jarrett was the first to catch the worm; he took the house for one week, commencing December 23d, and played Wallack and Davenport.

In 1850 Mr. John E. Cammeyer erected a fine large building on the corner of Fulton and Orange streets for a museum and theatre. There are, perhaps, few of my Brookly7n readers who do not remember the museum. The "museum," which was obn the second floor (the first being occupied by stores) contained a fine collection of stuffed birds, old pennies and other coin, musty coats, deformed skeletons, wax figures, "wild animals," &c. The museum, which was fitted up at an expense of $10,000 (so the bills said), was opened on Monday night, July 1st, 1850. (11)

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A Little Taste Of History (8)

Happenings During The 1800s In NYC #1

Probably the first entertainment of a theatrical character given in Brooklyn, was that by George Frederick Handel (George Handel Hill) in a hotel in Front near James street, about 1825-8. Handel, or Hill, afterward famous as Yankee Hill, was then locally noted as a very clever comic singer and dancer. His entertainment consisted of songs and dances, the Indian war dance, then "new and popular," being an attraction. The pecuniary success of this entertainment is very doubtful, but as Hill shortly after received and accepted an offer from the manager of a traveling company on the strength of it, I infer that it was otherwise artistically considered.

In December, 1825, a colored comedian, Mr. Hewlett, quite a celebrity at that time, gave an entertainment at Duilon's famous Military Garden, at the junction of Fulton and Joralemon streets (the site of the present Kings County Court House). The Long Island Star, December 22d, 1825, informs us that Mr. Hewlett was "a native of our own dear Island of Nassau. Rockaway being said to be the place of his birth. He was announced (in Kean's style) as "Shakespeare's proud representative." Mr. Hewlett recited Shakespeare and other standard authors and dramatists, indulging in imitations of Kean, Matthews, Phillips and other eminent actors. The Star says he had a good voice and figure.

The Brooklyn Amphitheatre, a fine, large frame building on the east side of Fulton, just below Concord street, was erected in the spring of 1828, by the proprietors of the Lafayette and Mount Pitt "establishments" in New York, and opened in July by an equestrian company. From a notice in the L.I. Star I learn that the still popular melo-drama of the "Broken Sword" was the initial bill, and that it was finely mounted, appointed and performed, and "attracted the silent and orderly attention of the audience." The Star remarks, depreciatingly, that "nothing but a higher species of gratification, combining intellect with show, can be expected to succeed' in Brooklyn.

The Antheneum on the corner of Atlantic and Clinton streets, was founded in 1852. Both dramatic and operatic performances have been given there, although the stage is ill adapted to either, being small and incap[able of scenic display. (11)

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Sunday, April 13, 2008

Chit-Chat Over Coffee Swirls (14)

Monk Eastman (1873-1920)

Some authorities on Crime consider Monk Eastman, as the greatest gangster this country ever produced. Who was he? They say that Eastman was the boss of the last great primarily Jewish street gang in New York City. He was able to get together on short notice at least 1,200 to 1,500 vicious gangsters. He actually looked like a gangster shoud, bullet-headed, with a busted nose and a pair of cauliflower ears. Eastman , son of a respectable Jewish restaurateur father, lived in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn.

In the early 1890s Eastman was a bouncer at a rough dance hall, by the name of New Irving hall. He always carried a huge bludgeon, a blackjack in his hip pocket and brass knuckles on each hand. Everytime he clubbed a victim he would put a notch on his club. Other young bloods on the East side took to imitating him in speech and manner. He had great magnetism, gathering hoodlums that were eager to do his bidding. He and his gang took over much of the crime in the lower East side. They were involved in robberies, burglaries, assault, muggings and especially murders. Eastman seized control of all the gambling dens and houses of prostitution where they all had to pay him for protection. Eastman ingratiated himself with Tammany Hall, where his services were useful during election time in exchange for protection . Anytime he or one of his men would get into trouble with the law, Tammany Hall lawyers would appear in court for them.

In a confrontation with the Five Pointers, Eastman got shot in the stomach, hovering near death. When he survived from his wound, he went to seek out the Five Pointer who shot him, and killed him throwing his body in the gutter. . After getting caught from one of his criminal acts, Eastman was sent to Sing Sing for 10 years. Then in 1920 he was shot dead by a corrupt Prohibition agent .


A Little Taste Of History (8)

Albany has many points of interest that we can learn about. Here are just a few:

The First Dutch Reformed Church: Located at SW. corner of N. Pearl and Orange Sts., begun in 1797, is the fourth building of the congregation, organized in 1642 and therefore the second oldest Protestant church body in America that has had a continuous existence. Philip Hooker not only furnished the design for the structure but also acted with Elisha Putnam as 'undertaker' (contractor). Hooker's original design, based on the Hollis Street Church in Boston by Charles Bulfinch, called for a fine pedimented portico with four brick Roman Doric columns, the whole flanked by twin baroque towers. The interior was severely plain. In 1858 the building underwent extensive alterations: the entrance portico was replaced by a projecting Romanesque block, and the steeples were covered with slate; within, the flat ceiling was masked by plaster groined vaults, windows received stained glass, and the walls were covered with medieval ornament. The unusually wide central aisle is due to the retention of a seventeenth-century Communion service in which the whole congregation is seated at a long table placed in the aisle. The Oaken pulpit was carved in Holland in 1656. The box pew used by Theodore Roosevelt while governor of the State is marked with a bronze tablet.

The City Hall: Eagle Street between Maiden Lane and Pine St., erected in 1882, was designed by Henry H. Richardson in his characteristic modified French Romanesque style. The pyramidal-roofed tower houses the city carillon of 60 bells, the largest of which weighs 11,200 pounds. In the mayor's office is a portrait of the first mayor, Peter Schuyler, painted in London in 1710 by Sir Godfrey Kneller.

The Schuyler Monument: Standing on a circular plot in front of the city hall, is the work of J. Massey Rhind. Philip Schuyler (1733-1804), born in Albany, supported the Revolutionary cause. He commanded the defenses of the northern frontier from 1775 until he was replaced by General Horatio Gates just before the Battle of Saratoga. Burgoyne and ranking British officers were his guests at the Schuyler Mansion for a week after the surrender. He played an important part in the earliest efforts to make the State's waterways navigable between the Hudson and the Great Lakes and in the chartering of Union College. Daniel Webster said Schuyler 'was second only to Washington in the services he performed for his country.'

Washington Park: Bounded by State and Willett Sts. and S. Lake and Madison Aves., occupying 90 acres, dates from 1865 and is Albany's largest park. It contains five miles of elm and maple-shaded drives bordered by lawns landscaped with flower beds, flowering shrubs, and larch groves. Near the Madison Avenue side of the park, facing the lake is the King Fountain, with figures in copper, by J. Massey Rhind, presented to the city in 1879 by Henry R. King in memory of his father. The figures represent Moses and his followers at the rock of Hebron. East of the King Fountain stands the Robert Burns Statue, designed by Charles Calverly and erected in 1888. The seated figure is of bronze on a base of polished Scotch granite, set on a slightly elevated circular mound and overhung by maple and elm trees. At the northern end of the park, near the Northern Boulevard and State Street entrance, is the Soldiers and Sailors Memorial, erected by the city in memory of its Civil War heroes. (10)

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"Yikes! What A Way To Go....NYC's Travel Experience"

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As a native New Yorker, I can truly say that the transportation situation has gotten worse in New York. Last year when I went to my niece's house to celebrate her daughter's graduation, I was stuck in unbelievable traffic, without exaggeration, taking us 7 hours to get home. It was a lovely summer day for a backyard celebration. Everyone was on the road. After a wonderful meal of Italian delicacies, and many goodbye hugs and kisses , we left to go back home. In the meantime there had been a terrible accident on the Tappanzee Bridge causing a truck that collided to catch on fire and explode. Immediately this forced the bridge authorities to shut the Tappanzee down from both ends. Down by Yorktown Heights the road was clear and we were able to move quickly, until we became stuck in bumper to bumper traffic inching our way toward the bridge, only to get there and be turned around, to find another way to get home. It looked like a giant parking lot. People's cars were beginning to overheat. Naturally I panicked. We were able to reach an exit, after two hours or so, only to find ourselves lost in an unfamiliar town. Good thing there was a burger king opened, so we were able to use their bathroom and have something to drink. Frantically we began to look for a major highway that would take us to the George Washington Bridge. We ended up taking the wrong highway going in the opposite direction.When we saw an exit we got off and somehow ended up in Yonkers. Since it had been several years since I had been to Yonkers, the area looked unfamiliar, creating a great deal of stress, with our eye on the gas level. Here it is night time and not a soul in sight to ask for directions.Good thing my son had filled up the tank. Finally we came to the Major Deegan Expressway, only to be caught up again in a bumper to bumper traffic inching its way to the Cross Bronx Expressway and other main arteries. I can't tell you how stressed out I was as well as short fused, wondering if and when we would get to the George Washington bridge. From 6pm that we left Yorktown Heights in New York State, we arrived home by 2am in New Jersey.

I said to myself, I don't ever want to go through such a terrible travel experience again, hoping that noone dies, gets married or graduates so I don't have to eat my words. Let's face it, even in New Jersey the traffic is horrible going down the shore. After this trip, I decided to write an article on the Transportation crisis that New York is facing. You can read all about it here..........(click here).

If you would like to make a comment on this article please contact me at:

Monday, April 7, 2008

A Little Taste Of History (7)

19th Century Thugs and Gangs

The Plug Uglies: They got their name because of the Hugh plug hats they wore, which stuffed with wool and leather scraps, was pulled down over the ears to serve as a most effective helmet. They were feared in 1825, as they carried bricks and heavy bludgeon, a pistol in their belt and hobnailed boots, with which they trampled their victims or enemies. They took part in the Civil War Draft Riots of 1863.

Big Mike Abrams (?-1898) The most notorious of the while killers of the Chinatown Alleys was Big Mike Adams, who performed beatings and killings for pay. If work was slow, Abrams would take to street killings. Sometimes he operated opium-smoking dens on Pell Street and in Coney Island. One of his big time most-celebrated murders were the knife decapitations of three Chinese before the horrified eyes of onlookers on Pell Street. Police found Big Mike dead in bed, his room filled with gas. Foul play suspected.

Bowery Boys:-One of the toughest gangs in New York during the early 1800s was the famed Bowery Boys, who, as native Americans, did battle with the dreaded Irish gangs, especially the Dead Rabbits and their satellites. The average Bowery Boy was a burly ruffian who worked as a butcher or apprentice mechanic or perhaps a bouncer in a Bowery saloon or dance cellar. The Bowery Boys' hatred of Irish gangs and of foreigners in general was implacable, and they campaigned for candidates who ran against naturalization laws and favored their repeal so that Irish voters could be stripped of their citizenship. During the Draft Riots the Bowery Boys took part in much of the criminality loosed on the city.

Daybreak Boys: New York Criminal Gang-Although no member was much over the age of 20, the Daybreak Boys were among the most desperate New York gangs in the 1850s. It was said that no one could join the gang until he had killed at least one man, but this was an exaggeration since some members were as young as 12 or even 10 and hadn't yet advanced to homicide. Once in the gang, they were initiated into the practice. By the end of 1859 the gang broke up.

Dead Rabbitt:New York Gang-From the 1820's until their final decline in the 1870's, the Dead Rabbits were a huge gang of criminals who controlled much of the Lower East Side, excluding the Bowery, and were famous as thieves and thugs. When they went to battle with other gangs, or do their crime they would carry a dead rabbit on a pike. They were also political sluggers, supporting pro-Irish candidates. The main foes of the Dead Rabbits were the Bowery Boys, who were aligned with the anti-Irish Native American Party. The Dead Rabbits resented descriptions of themselves as criminals.

Eastman, Monk (1873-1920)-He was known as the "prince of gangsters". The boss of a Jewish street gang in New York City. His home was in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, where his father owned a restaurant. Eastman and his men took over much of the crime on the Lower East Side, involved in robberies, burglaries, assault, muggings and murder for pay. In December 1920, He was shot dead by a corrupt Prohibition agent. Source: (9)

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A Little Taste Of History (6)

First Rank Hotels In NYC Prior to 1916

THE VANDERBILT HOTEL: Madison avenue. and 14th street. (R. Single with B. $3. Double with B. $5. Suite $12) (Warren and Wetmore, architects). The house is built in 18th century style of architecture and is designed and furnished in excellent taste. It offers special facilities for automobile parties, dressing rooms on Mezzanine Floor, garage for guests' cars, touring cars rented by the week, day, or hour, special suite for private entertainments. In the Lounge is a Relief Frieze sculptured by Beatrice Astor Chandler.

THE WALDORF-ASTORIA: 5th avenue. and 34th Street. (R. Single $3. With B. $4. Double $4. With B. $5. Suite $10.)Between 33d and 34th sts., W. side, rises the Waldorf-Astoria, built of red brick and sandstone in a German Renaissance style . This was formerly the most magnificent of the New York hotels, but it is now surpassed in taste by newer ones. The Waldorf section of the building on 33d st., erected in 1893 by the Hon. William Waldorf Astor, occupies the site of the town house of his father, the late John Jacob Astor; while the 34th st. section, known as the Astor, erected in 1897 by Col. John Jacob Astor, occupies the site of the town house of his father, William B. Astor. The buildings were designed by Henry J. Hardenbergh, under the supervision of George C. Boldt, the first proprietor and lessee of both.

THE BILTMORE: 43rd street. and Vanderbilt avenue. Close by Grand Central Terminal, subway entrance to station. (R. Single $2.50. With B. $3.50. Double $4. With B. $5. Suites $10.) one of the new so-called " Terminal Buildings" at 43rd and Madison ave., entrance on Vanderbilt ave. (Warren and Wetmore, architects) is the newest and perhaps most beautiful of New York hotels. The style is modernized Italian Renaissance, and the material granite, limestone, terra-cotta and brick. The hotel is brought into harmony with the other buildings of the group by being recessed, on the Vanderbilt ave. side above the 6th story, in a court which divides the upper portion of the building into two towers. The court forms a charming garden with pergolas and growing flowers. Tea is served here. The interior is decorated and furnished in excellent taste by W.& J. Sloane.

HOTEL ASTOR: Broadway and 44th st. (R. Single $2.50. With B. $3.50. Double $3.50. With B. $4.50. Suites $10.) Between 44th and 45th sts., on the W. side, is the Hotel Astor, erected by Wm. Waldorf, Astor, one of the largest and most elaborate hotels, especially used for conventions, balls and social affairs. It is a French Renaissance structure, o£ red brick and limestone, with a mansard of green slate and copper (Clinton and Russell, architects). Source for all of the above (8)

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A Little Taste Of History (5)

The Martin Koszta Affair: A Hungarian Immigrant

In American history the name applied to a diplomatic episode, involving the rights in foreign countries of emigrants to the United States as yet not fully naturalized. A certain Martin Koszta, of Hungarian birth, who had taken part in the political movement of 1848-49 for detaching Hungary from the dominion of the Emperor of Austria, and who had fled to Turkey upon the failure of that movement, emigrated to the United States after a short detention in Turkey, and in July, 1852, made a declaration under oath of his intention to become a citizen of the United States, at the same time renouncing all allegiance to any foreign power. After a residence of a year and eleven months he returned to Turkey on private business, and was placed under the protection of the United States by the American consul at Smyrna and the American charge d'affaires ad interim at Constantinople.

While waiting to return to the United States he was taken, by force, aboard the Austrian brig-of-war Huszar and confined there in chains. The American officials protested in vain both to the Turkish Government and to the Austrian officers, and finally on July 2, 1853, Captain Ingraham of the United States sloop-of-war Saint Louis, then lying in Smyrna harbor, threatened to open fire if Koszta was not surrendered to him by four o'clock. The Austrian consul-general then agreed that Koszta should be held by the consul-general of France until some agreement was reached. On August 29, 1853, Baron Hulsemann, the Austrian charge d'affaires at Washington, wrote to Secretary of State Marcy, asking that the United States "disavow the conduct of its agents....hasten to call them to a severe account, and tender to Austria a satisfaction proportionate to the outrage," basing his request on the ground that Koszta had never ceased to be a citizen of Austria, and that Ingraham's threat was in violation of international law.

Marcy replied, September 26, 1853, in a ringing letter, known as the Hulsemann letter, in which he defended the position of the United States throughout, on the ground that Koszta had ceased to be a citizen of Austria even by the law of Austria, "that Koszta when seized and imprisoned was invested with the nationality of the United States, and they had therefore the right, if they chose to exercise it, to extend their protection to him; that from international law....the only law which can be rightfully appealed to for rules in this case. Austria could derive no authority to obstruct or interfere with the United States in the exercise of this right, in effecting the liberation of Koszta; and that Captain Ingraham's interposition for his release was, under the extraordinary circumstances of the case, right and proper." This letter was received with great enthusiasm throughout the United States, and the stand taken by Marcy with reference to the status of Immigrants not fully naturalized has been indorsed by various well-known authorities on international law. Koszta was ultimately released and allowed to return to the United States. CONSULT: Correspondence between the Secretary of State and the charge d'affaires of Austria relative to the case of Martin Koszta (Washington, 1853). Source: (3)

Sources Utilized to Document A Little Taste Of History

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Sources Utilized to Document Information

1. Historic Towns of the Middle States. Publisher: G.P. Putnam's Sons. Copyright: 1899.

2. Brooklyn Daily Eagle 1/2/1898

3. "A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents 1789-1897" Publisher: By Authority of Congress...1899 Copyright: by James D. Richardson..a Representative from the State of Tennessee.....1897

4. A Historical Sketch of the Rise and Progress Of the Metropolitan City of America by a New Yorker, Published by Carlton & Phillips-New York: 1853.

5. History of the city of New York: from its earliest settlement to the present time; W.R.C. Clark & Co. New York (1860)

6. Manual of the City of New York by Joseph Shannon 1869

7. Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York by D.T. Valentine, 1865 Edmund Jones & Company, Printers.

8. Rider's New York City: A Guide-Book for Travelers, compiled and edited by Fremont Rider; Henry Holt and Company-New York (1916)

9. The Encyclopedia of American Crime; Author: Carl Sifakis, Facts on File, Inc. 1982 The Epic of New York City, A Narrative History; Edward Robb Ellis Old Town Books 1966.

10. A Guide to the Empire State Publisher: Oxford University Press--New York Copyright: 1940 Compiled by the workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of New York and sponsored by New York State Historical Association.

11. Brooklyn Daily Eagle 12/16/1868

12. The 1932 Brooklyn Church Year Book by J.H. Carpenter; Brooklyn, N.Y. The Federation, 1932

13. The Secrets of The Great City, A Work Descriptive of the Virtues,and the vices, The Mysteries, Miseries and Crimes of New York City. By Edward Winslow Martin Philadelphia, Chicago. Jones Brothers & Co. 1868

14. The New International Encyclopedia; Dodd, Mead and Company-New York 1902-1905, 21 Volumes.

15. Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York; Joseph Shannon 1869

16. I Hear America Talking by Stuart Berg Flexner; Publisher: Sinmon and Schuster-New York 1976.

17. New York: Old & New, Its Story, Streets, and Landmarks by Rufus Rockwell Wilson J.B. Lippincott Company-Philadelphia 1902.

18. New York

19. Illustrated History of the Borough of Queens-New York City by George Von Skal; F.T. Smiley Publishing Co., NYC 1908

20. A History of Livingston County, New York by Lockwood Lyon; Geneseo; Edward E. Doty 1876

21. Brooklyn Daily Eagle August 16, 1873

22. The Encyclopedia of Jewish Knowledge In One Volume, Edited by Jacob De Haas; Behrman's Jewish Book House New York, 1934.

23. New York Times Nov 26, 1905. p. SM6 (1 page)

24. web link:

25. Society and Thought in Modern America by Harvey Wish; David McKay
Company, Inc.-New York Vol: II Page: 233


27. Revue, The Great Broadway Period by Robert Baral; Fleet Press Corporation-New York (1962)

28. A Jewish Tourist's Guide to the U.S. by Bernard Postal and Lionel Koppman; The Jewish Publication Society of America-Philadelphia 1954.

29. Sights and Sensations of the Great City by James Dabney McCabe. Publisher: National Publication Co. 1872 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

30. American Immigrant Cultures: Builders of a Nation; by David Levinson and Melvin Ember; Simon & Schuster-New York (1997)

31. The New York Public Library American History Desk Reference; A Simon & Schuster (1997)

32. Dictionary of Catholic Biography by John J. Delaney and James Edward Tobin, Publisher: Doubleday & Company, Inc. Garden City, New York (1961)

33. A history of the churches of all denominations in the city of New York: from the first settlement to the year 1850.

34. The Timetables of History by Bernard Grun; Simon and Schuster-New York (1946, 1963, 1975, 1979).

35.'s "Chronology of New York City's Factual First 1524-1999" a researched and compiled project that is the property of Miriam Medina resulting from 9 years of extensive research of newspapers, trustworthy books and public records.

36. Library of Congress, American Memory; Coolidge-Consumerism, “Radio: A Consumer Product and a Producer of Consumption”

37. The American Jewish Year Book 5664 b y Cyrus Adler; The Jewish Publication Society of America (1903)

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A Little Taste Of History (4)

Happenings in NYC During the 1700s #1

In 1703, the King's Farm was granted to the church by Queen Anne, thus becoming the celebrated Trinity church property. The church was enlarged in 1735, and again in 1737, to meet the increasing wants of the congregation, and thus remained until it fell a victim to the conflagration of 1776, which laid waste the greater portion of the city. It lay in ruins until 1788, when it was again rebuilt, and consecrated by Bishop Provost in 1791. Source: (5)

August, 1770. An elegant equestrian statue, the first of the kind in this city, of his Majesty George III, was erected in the Bowling Green in presence of a large concourse of persons and amid music and a discharge of ordnance. It remained six years but was destroyed by the Liberty boys in 1776, and its material (lead) cast into bullets. Source: (6)

In 1772, a charter was grant it by George III. under the name of the New York Society Library, and under the new impetus given it by this incorporation, it flourished till all thoughts of literary enterprise were banished by the general stagnation of the Revolution. The city fell into the hands of the British and the library into the hands of the British soldiery; and, in the scenes of Vandalism which followed, the choice and valuable collection which had been gathered with so much care, was scattered, mutilated and almost totally destroyed. Source: (5)

As early as 1770 several physicians notified Lieutenant-Governor Colden that subscriptions were being solicited for the establishment of a public hospital; and a royal charter was obtained the following year. The land secured was from the Rutgers farm and was considered far out of town. It comprised five acres on the west side of Broadway, between the present Duane and Worth streets, Thomas Street being cut through later. The corner-stone of the building was laid by Governor Tryon, September 2, 1773. The building was partially burnt before completion, but was repaired and was ready for occupancy at the time the Revolution began. It was located on the Kalck Hook, a hill some forty or fifty feet high, situated on the line of Broadway, and, therefore, a commanding position for fortifications, which were erected here by the British, the hospital building, itself, being used by the soldiers and being surrounded by a fort. Source: (7)

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A Little Taste Of History (3)

Happenings During The 1600s in NYC. #2

The city fathers, at that primitive period, appear to have exercised a truly paternal care over their municipal charge. It was ordered that "the watch should be set at eight o'clock every evening, after ringing the bell, and the gates locked at nine, and opened again at daylight." To prevent the possibility of a surprise by the Indians, it was directed that" every citizen should have a musket, and powder and balls, constantly in readiness for use." Especial care was taken that the city should be properly provided with public houses; and as if there was danger that there would be some lack of regard to the wants of those for whom such houses are provided, it was further ordered that " all persons who keep public houses shall sell beere, as well as wyne and other liquors, and keep lodgings for strangers," and a tariff of prices for each article of refreshment was fixed by authority. To facilitate building, it was ordered that " the land in the city convenient to build on, if the parties who own the same do not speedily build thereon, may be valued and sold to those who are willing to build." The streets were to be cleaned every Saturday, and the cartmen were required to carry away the dirt, or forfeit their license. No butchering was allowed to be done within the city, but a public slaughter-house was built over the water, beyond the wall, in " the Smith's Vley." To the denizens of this metropolis such laws as these read strangely. This was probably that " good old time " so often referred to by querulous old people. (4)

In 1676 a law was passed providing for paving some of the principal streets. That now known as Whitehall-street was the first to receive this attention. Soon after the great canal was ordered to be filled up, and changed to a street, and named Broad-street, which was also immediately paved. Previous to this the water had come up to Garden-street, (now Exchange Place,) and the ferry-boats landed their passengers near the upper part of the canal. A few years after, a street was opened between this and Broadway, called New-street, by Adrian Waters, for which contribution to the public interest he was exempted from paying taxes for six years. " Beaver graft" was also doomed to the same treatment that had been awarded to "de Heere graft," and the road in the Smith's " Vley was regulated and paved as a street of the city. (4)

Progress of "Breukelen."

A town had been planted just across the East River at an early period of the history of New-Netherland, which, from the unevenness of the surface of the surrounding country, was called Breukelen, or Broken-land, a name since softened into the less significant but more euphonious word Brooklyn. This town was regarded more favorably than that on the shore of New-Jersey, and was treated rather as a younger sister than a dangerous rival. By an early regulation of the corporation of New-York, cooperating with the authorities of Brooklyn, " a fayre and market was held in Breukelen on the first Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, and in New-York on the three succeeding days." A regular ferry between the two places had been maintained for many years, under the control of the corporation of New-York. The rates of ferriage were fixed by law,—" for a single person eight stivers, in wampum, or a silver twopence; each person in company, half that price; or if after sunset,double price." This ferry at an early period became a source of revenue to the city. For several years previous to 1698 it was rented out at one hundred and forty pounds a year; and that year it was leased for seven years, at an annual rent of one hundred and sixty-five pounds. The lessee, in this case, was the celebrated Rip Van Dam, an individual who figured largely in his times in the affairs of both the city and the province. (4)

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Friday, April 4, 2008

A Little Taste Of History (2)

Topic: Absences of Presidents of the U.S. from the Nation's Capital

President Washington was frequently absent from the capital; he appears to have been thus absent at least one hundred and eighty-one days during his term. During his several absences he discharged official and executive duties; among them: In March, 1791, he issued a proclamation, dated at Georgetown, in reference to running the boundary for the territory of the permanent seat of the Government; From Mount Vernon he signed an official letter to the Emperor of Morocco, and from the same place the commission of Oliver Wolcott as Comptroller of the Treasury and the proclamation respecting the whisky insurrection in Pennsylvania; also various sea letters, the proclamation of the treaty of 1795 between the United States and Spain, the Executive order of August 4, 1792, relative to the duties on distilled spirits, etc.

President Madison was absent from the seat of Government during his two Presidential terms six hundred and thirty-seven days. He signed and issued from Montpelier during his absence from the capital seventy-one commissions, one proclamation, and nine letters of credence to ministers, accrediting them to foreign governments, and, as it appears, transacted generally all the necessary routine business incident to the Executive office.

President Monroe was absent from the capital during his Presidential service of eight years seven hundred and eight days, independent of the year 1824 and the two months of 1825, for which period no data are found. He transacted public business wherever he happened to be, sometimes at his farm in Virginia, again at his summer resort on the Chesapeake, and sometimes while traveling. He signed and issued from these several places, away from the capital, numerous commissions to civil officers of the Government, exequaturs to foreign consuls, letters of credence, two letters to sovereigns, and thirty-seven pardons.

President Van Buren was absent from the capital during his Presidential term one hundred and thirty-one days. He discharged executive duties and performed official and public acts during these absences. Among the papers signed by President Van Buren during his absence from the seat of Government are commission (one of these being for a United States judge of a district
court), pardons, etc.

President Jackson was absent from the capital during his Presidential service of eight years five hundred and two days. He also performed executive duties and public acts while absent. He appears to have signed and issued while absent from the capital very many public papers, embracing commissions, letters of credence, exequaturs, pardons, and among them four Executive proclamations. On the 26th of June, 1833, he addressed a letter from Boston to Mr. Duane, Secretary of the Treasury, giving his views at large on the removal of the "deposits" from the United States Bank and placing them in the State banks, directing that the change, with all its arrangements, should be, if possible, completed by the 15th September following, and recommending that Amos Kendall should be appointed an agent of the Treasury Department to make the necessary arrangements with the State banks. Soon after, September 23, a paper signed by the President and purporting to have been read to the Cabinet was published in the newspapers of the day.

Sources Utilized to Document A Little Taste Of History


A Little Taste Of History (1)

Topic: Happenings During the 1600s In NYC #1

In 1660 Rev. Henricus Selwyn was installed in Brooklyn, New York at a salary of 600 guilders a year, one-half of which was paid by Brooklyn and the other half by the Fatherland or Holland. (1)

The first religious services on Manhattan island, which in 1628 resulted in the organization of a church, were held in the upper room of the mill which ground the colonists' grain. It was not a wind mill and the machinery on the lower floor was propelled by horse power. On the upper floor the mill of God ground slowly, and on but one day in the week, while the wheels on the lower floor turned six days out of seven. The mill was prophetic and new York became not the city of churches, but the city of Commerce. The church in New York remains on the second floor of the mill. In Brooklyn the situation was different and the prophecy for the church was better. (2)

It was in 1672 that that immortal zealot George Fox, came to Flushing, sent by Penn, who saw among the Long islanders, many of them, for conscience sake self-exiled from England, a promising field for the simple faith of the Friends. John Bowne, a well to do tradesman, was his first convert. Fox made Bowne's house his home during his stay in Flushing, and in one corner of it is still shown the lounge on which he rested after his impassioned outpourings in the open air. Later Bowne's indiscreet hospitality led to his banishment to Holland, but he turned his punishment to good effect by pleading the cause of the Quakers and returning with an order for the tolerance of the persecuted people. (1)

In 1676 the first street paving was done. The heeren Gracht, or Broad street, was filled up and levelled. There were no asphalt companies then. With an eye to protection of home industries, the Governor, in consequence of a representation that wheat was lower in New York than in the neighboring colonies, fixed its price at 5 shillings a bushel for winter yield and 4s 6d. for summer.

The far eastern portion of the present Borough of the Bronx skirting Long island sound and including Pelham Neck was settled by Anne Hutchinson and her husband, William, English stock, who came from Boston in 1634. Eight years later Throggs neck was settled by John Throckmorton and thirty-five families who came from new England to escape the cruelty of the Puritans. The north of what is now Westchester County was purchased directly from the Indians by Stephanus van Cortlandt, who thus became one of the first patroons of New Amsterdam. These were the chief pioneers of Westchester and their sturdy stock still hold sway in the territory acquired from the Indians. (2)

Sources Utilized to Document A Little Taste Of History