Monday, May 18, 2009

Saturday, May 16, 2009

So Mr. President What Did You Do During Your Term In Office? (14)

Topic: The Roosevelt Administration: Year 1933 #2

March 22, 1933
The President signs into law a measure to legalize, effective April 17, beer and wine with a maximum alcoholic content of 3.2 percent by weight. The measure also places a tax of $5 per barrel (31 gallons), which q uickly brings in much needed revenue.

March 31, 1933
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) is established to provide employment for young men between the ages of 18 and 25 in various projects aimed at conserving or improving the country's natural resources, such as reforestation, soil erosion and flood control, fire prevention, road building, and park and recreational area improvement.

April 19, 1933
President Roosevelt announces that the United States is going off the gold standard and will no longer redeem currency for gold.

May 1, 1933
The final day for returning illegally held gold to the U.S. Treasury arrives, with an estimated $700,000,000 in gold still in private hands.

May 12, 1933
The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) is established and Harry Hopkins of New York is made administrator of the program, which is to distribute $500,000,000 through grants to state and local agencies to relieve the poor and hungry.

May 12, 1933
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was passed to bring the farmers more purchasing power and limit their production of agricultural surpluses. This goal was to be accomplished by paying farmers a subsidy when they reduce their production of rice, cotton, tobacco, wheat, corn, dairy products, and hogs.

May 18, 1933
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was created to develop the hydroelectric resources of the destitute Tennessee valley. This was established to run the Muscle Shoals power and nitrate plants on the Tennessee River, built by the Government during the World War. The TVA was also authorized to build additional dams and power plants, develop rural electrification, plan for flood and erosion control, build recreation areas, and help with reforestation.

To be continued: The Roosevelt Administration: Year 1933 #3

Sources For Information: The American Presidents by David C. Whitney; Reader's Digest Association, Inc. (1996), The New York Public Library American History Desk Reference; A Stonesong Press Book (1997) The Bicentennial Almanac Edited by Calvin D. Linton, Ph.D. Publishers, Thomas Nelson Inc. (1975) The Presidents of the United States Vol 2, A.S. Barnes & Co. (1973): Roosevelt in Retrospect, A Profile in History by John Gunther; Harper & Brothers, Publishers, (1950): Society and Thought in America: Volume II by Harvey Wish, Publishers: David McKay Company, Inc.1952

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Friday, May 15, 2009

So Mr. President What Did You Do During Your Term In Office? (13)

Topic: The Roosevelt Administration: Year 1933 #1

February 15, 1933
On February 15, 1933 there was an attempt to assassinate President-elect Roosevelt, while he was sitting in an open car in Miami, Florida. Although six shots were directed at him, thanks to the intervention of a bystander, Mrs. William F. Cross, the President-elect was not injured. Several others in the party including Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago were hit by the shots.

March 5, 1933
President Roosevelt calls Congress to convene on March 9 in special session. At the same time, using the 1917 Trading With The Enemy Act, he declares a nationwide bank holiday effective March 6 through March 9, closing virtually every financial institution in the country, including the Federal Reserve. Roosevelt also proclaims an embargo on the export of gold, silver, and currency.

March 6, 1933
Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicgo dies of wounds received during the attempted assassination of the President on Feb. 15.

March 9, 1933
Congress meets and immediately passes the Emergency Banking Relief Act, which gives the Treasury Department power to control various transacdtions in currency, credit, and bullion. It also makes it illegal, effective May 1, to own or export gold, and empowers the Treasury Department to regulate the reopening of the banks.

March 12, 1933
President Roosevelt addresses the nation in the first of his radio "fireside chats." Addressing his listeners as "My friends," he explains the purpose of the national bank holiday and the measures being taken to deal with the financial crisis.

The Banking Act was signed in 1933.

March 13-27, 1933
Banks start to reopen, and within two weeks over 75 per cent of all banks, with well over 90 percent of the nation's banking assets, are operating. During the same period about $1,000,000,000 is redeposited and gold is returned to the U.S. Treasury.

March 20, 1933

President Roosevelt signs the Economy Act, which reduces salaries by up to 15% to save about $100,000,000 a year, and reduces veterans' benefits by a total of $400,000,000 a year.

To be continued: The Roosevelt Administration: Year 1933 #2

Sources For Information: The American Presidents by David C. Whitney; Reader's Digest Association, Inc. (1996), The New York Public Library American History Desk Reference; A Stonesong Press Book (1997) The Bicentennial Almanac Edited by Calvin D. Linton, Ph.D. Publishers, Thomas Nelson Inc. (1975) The Presidents of the United States Vol 2, A.S. Barnes & Co. (1973): Roosevelt in Retrospect, A Profile in History by John Gunther; Harper & Brothers, Publishers, (1950): Society and Thought in America: Volume II by Harvey Wish, Publishers: David McKay Company, Inc.1952

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So Mr. President What Did You Do During Your Term In Office? (12)

Excerpts From the First Inaugural Speech of Franklin Delano Roosevelt: March 4, 1933.

"This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself—nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance. In every dark hour of our national life a leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves which is essential to victory. I am convinced that you will again give that support to leadership in these critical days."

In such a spirit on my part and on yours we face our common difficulties. They concern, thank God, only material things. Values have shrunken to fantastic levels; taxes have risen; our ability to pay has fallen; government of all kinds is faced by serious curtailment of income; the means of exchange are frozen in the currents of trade; the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side; farmers find no markets for their produce; the savings of many years in thousands of families are gone.

More important, a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence, and an equally great number toil with little return. Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment.

The money changers have fled from their high seats in the temple of our civilization. We may now restore that temple to the ancient truths. The measure of the restoration lies in the extent to which we apply social values more noble than mere monetary profit.......

"This Nation asks for action, and action now. Our greatest primary task is to put people to work......

Finally, in our progress toward a resumption of work we require two safeguards against a return of the evils of the old order; there must be a strict supervision of all banking and credits and investments; there must be an end to speculation with other people's money, and there must be provision for an adequate but sound currency......

I am prepared under my constitutional duty to recommend the measures that a stricken nation in the midst of a stricken world may require. These measures, or such other measures as the Congress may build out of its experience and wisdom, I shall seek, within my constitutional authority, to bring to speedy adoption......

But in the event that the Congress shall fail to take one of these two courses, and in the event that the national emergency is still critical, I shall not evade the clear course of duty that will then confront me. I shall ask the Congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the crisis—broad Executive power to wage a war against the emergency, as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact invaded by a foreign foe....

We do not distrust the future of essential democracy. The people of the United States have not failed. In their need they have registered a mandate that they want direct, vigorous action. They have asked for discipline and direction under leadership. They have made me the present instrument of their wishes. In the spirit of the gift I take it."

In the next hundred days President Roosevelt put the federal government through the greatest upheaval it had ever known in peacetime.

To be continued: The Roosevelt Administration: Year 1933 #1

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Thursday, May 14, 2009

So Mr. President What Did You Do During Your Term In Office? (11)

Topic: The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Administration 1933-1945 Intro. (2)

Americans who had counted on the wisdom of its dynamic businessmen were shaken by Senate revelations that too many bankers and industrialists had shown neither wisdom nor integrity in the speculative role they played in the events leading up to the great crash of 1929. The Panic of 1929 and the ensuing depression were the most terrible the nation had ever suffered.

"The stock market crash on October 23, 1929 wiped out an average of more than a billion dollars worth of paper values a day. A staggering total of 15 million were unemployed, and those who continued to work did so under greatly reduced wage scales." The flow of capital into productive enterprise slowed down to a trickle. The country was suffering from under consumption not overproduction. Banks were weighted down with government bonds, real estate mortgages based on greatly appreciated valuations, and highly speculative securities. Our mass unemployment in proportion to population almost doubled that of Britain and even exeeded that of Germany. A general disillussionment across the entire nation was obvious as more and more breadlines, vagrants living in Hoovervilles, and marches of unemployed men with defiant banners contributed to the economic situation. Beginning in the United States, the Great Depression spread to most of the world's industrial countries, bringing foreign-trade to a standstill. There was a rapid decline in production and sales of goods.

The run on banks became acute as nearly $1,000,000,000 were withdrawn during the two weeks preceding March 4, 1933.

Extremely low prices bankrupted hundreds of thousands of farmers and threatened thousands more with the foreclosure of their farms. The small farmer, the tenant, the sharecropper, and the farm hand were caught in the unyielding vise of an increasing technological revolution. Mechanization and scientific agriculture drove many families off the farm. Farm debtors and sharecroppers were evicted by the thousands. Malnutrition is evident in every part of the country and even starvation appears. Thousands of banks were bankrupt and those that were still operating were closed by state governors to head off further failures.

Faced with these conditions of the nation being in the worst desperate economic plight ever before seen, President Roosevelt takes office on March 4, 1933. During his first "100 days" with the cooperation of Congress, Roosevelt puts into effect 15 major pieces of legislation in his determination to remedy the nation's many problems. With his famous fireside chats, he tries and often succeeds in restoring confidence and lifting the nation's morale.

To be continued: Excerpts From The First Inaugural Address by President Roosevelt.

Sources For Information: The American Presidents by David C. Whitney; Reader's Digest Association, Inc. (1996), The New York Public Library American History Desk Reference; A Stonesong Press Book (1997) The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover, Macmillan Company (1952); The Bicentennial Almanac Edited by Calvin D. Linton, Ph.D. Publishers, Thomas Nelson Inc. (1975) The Presidents of the United States Vol 2, A.S. Barnes & Co. (1973)
: Roosevelt in Retrospect, A Profile in History by John Gunther; Harper & Brothers, Publishers, (1950): Society and Thought in America: Volume II by Harvey Wish, Publishers: David McKay Company, Inc.1952

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Sunday, May 10, 2009

Chit-Chat Over Coffee Swirls (31)

This was sent to me by my niece Andrea, who is very special to me so I thought it would be nice to share it with you.....

"To All My Keepers"

I grew up with practical grandparents who had been frightened by the Great Depression in the 1930's.
A grandmother, God love her, who washed aluminum foil after she cooked in it, then reused it. She was the original recycle queen, before they had a Name for it...
A grandfather who was happier getting old shoes fixed than buying new ones.

Their marriage was good, their dreams focused. Their best friends lived barely a wave away. I can see them now, Granddad in trousers, tee shirt and a hat and Grandmom in a house dress, lawn mower in one hand, and dish-towel in the other. It was the time for fixing things: a curtain rod, the kitchen radio, screen door, the oven door, the hem in a dress. Things we keep.

It was a way of life, and sometimes it made me crazy. All that repairing, eating and renewing, I wanted just once to be wasteful. Waste meant affluence. Throwing things away meant you knew there'd always be more.

But then my grandfather died, and on that clear fall night, in the warmth of the hospital room, I was struck with the pain of learning that sometimes there isn't any more.

Sometimes, what we care about most gets all used up and goes away...never to return. So... While we have it... it's best we love it.... And care for it... And fix it when it's broken..... And heal it when it's sick.. This is true... For marriage... friends... family and old cars.... children with bad report cards... dogs and cats with bad hips.... aging parents.... and grandparents. We keep them because they are worth it, because we are worth it. Some things we keep. Like a best friend that moved away or a classmate we grew up with. There are just some things that make life important, like people we know who are special.... and so, we keep them close!

Good friends are like stars.... You don't always see them, but you know they are always

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Tuesday, May 5, 2009


A Blog is a frequently updated journal or diary, also called a "Web log," which is a specialized site that allows an individual or group of individuals to share a running log of events and personal insights with online audiences. A Blog is a publication of a mixture of personal thoughts, experiences, and web links. Some blogging sites may provide a variety of topics that may be of interest to the public, such as in my case where I love to talk about New York City , New York State and American History as well as life itself.

There are many people who love to read blogs, but just don't have the time to go through it's entire contents trying to find something that may be of interest to them. Usually when people approach a blog, they like to go quickly from one thing to the next. As for actually reading the text, there is little evidence of that unless the subject matter should catch their eye, then it becomes worthwhile.

Since my blog was started in 2007, there have been postings of over 300 tid-bits of information, which talk about history, life situations, goals and success. New updates will continue to be posted regularly. So my dear reader, for your benefit, I am making every attempt to improve the navigation to this treasure trove of information as quickly as possible. For this purpose I have created a table of contents divided by categories, for easy accessing. However if there is something that may interest you, I suggest you find yourself a comfortable chair, and while you're at it, grab a steaming hot cup of coffee and a bagel with cream cheese and you'll be all set to settle down for a while. So happy reading.


(A. ) Getting To Know Mimi (B.) N.Y.C. History (C.) East Harlem
(D.) Spanish Harlem (E.) Black Harlem (F.) New York State (G.) Urban/Suburban Living Issues

Table of Contents (3)
(H.) Chit-Chat Over Coffee Swirls

Table of Contents (4)
(I.) Jewish Knowledge (J.) Self-Improvement (K.) Historical Facts On England & United States

Table of Contents (5)
(L.) Miscellaneous (M.) Timetables (N.) Ethnic Groups (O.) Legal Talk
(P.) Entertainment: Backward Glances (Q.) Immigration

Table of Contents (6)
(R.) Women__Bio Sketches, Feminine Fancies, Recipes, Kitchen Talk.
(S.) Worship

Table of Contents (7)
(T.) A Little Taste of History, (U.) U.S. History-Transportation, (V) U.S. History-Panics, Economic Depressions

Table of Contents (8)
(W) ¿Habla Español?
(This section dedicated to articles of historical facts, poetry, self-improvement, human interest stories etc. written in Spanish)

Table of Contents (9)
(X) So Mr. President, What Did You Do During Your Term in Office....? (The Series)

(Feel free to express your comments or ask questions regarding: "" which will be reviewed before posting. Thank You.



Poesías de José Martí : (4)

Título: ¿Qué me pides? ¿Lágrimas?

¿Qué me pides? ¿Lágrimas?

Yo te las daré:

¡Si tengo el pecho de ellas tan lleno

Que ya con ellas no sé qué hacer!

¿Enseñarlas? ¡Nunca!

No las han de ver.

Quien su dolor en público difunde

De su dolor o alivio indigno es.

Puede la de Mágdala

Mísera mujer,__

Enamorada de Jesús echarse

Envuelta en llanto a sus desnudos pies;

Mas su corona de hombre

Rompe con mano infiel

El que el pudor de su dolor descuida__

Y en verso trabajado

El duelo profanado

Por calles y por plazas deja ver.

Con el dolor, el grave compañero,

Vivirse debe, y perecer entero;__

¡Vuélvete atrás__coqueta de la pena!

¡Boabdil impuro, flaca Magdalena!

El que en silencio y soledad padece

Derecho adquiere de morir__¡ y crece!__

¡A mí hierros y aceros! ¡Y en mi pecho

Clavados, dadme de morir derecho!__

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Poesías de José Martí : (3)

Título: Sin Amores

Llorando el Corazón, llorando tanto

Que no veo el papel en que te escribo,

Aquí te voy diciendo

¡Que ya me estoy muriendo

De tanto como vivo!

Ni tú, ni tú, que con tus manos blancas

Apretaste las iras en mi frente,

Que tal me palpitaban

Que casi se saltaban

Del círculo candente;

Ni tú devuelves el calor perdido

Al ser amante que en mí mismo yace,

Yo cumplo mi condena;

Esta es del vivo pena:

Ni muérese ni nace.

Aquello que se sueña, no se tiene

En lo que el triste humano a haber alcanza;

Y para más tormento

Locura es el invento

Humano de esperanza.

Esperan los que viven bien hallados;

El torpe espera, espera bien el ciego:

¡Yo floto, abandonado

En este mar helado,

Sin ondas y sin fuego!

Y creo, yo sí creo; pero vive

Tan lejana y tan alta mi creencia

¡Que dejo, peregrino,

Más sangre en el camino

Que hay luz en mi conciencia!

Y besabas tú bien; yo hago memoria

De aquel beso apretado de aquel día:

Fue largo; nos dormimos

¡Y, cuando en nos volvimos

Duraba todavía!

Te quiero, algo te quiero; y cuando fueras

En mis recuerdos por indigna un peso,

Quisierate, alma bella,

Por nuestra noche aquella,

¡Por nuestro largo beso!

Pero es ley de la vida la fatiga,

Y se nos cansa pronto la memoria;

Fatiga haber amado;

Fatiga haber llorado;

Nos cansa la Victoria.

Si quieres que te ame, yo te diese

Mi amor que, amado tanto, aún no despierta;

Moléstanme amoríos,

Serviles desvaríos

De un alma medio muerta:

El cuerpo me sacude y enamora

Y pálida de amor el alma llevo;

¡Yo quiero,__¡oh fin de males!__

Con labios nunca iguales

Un beso siempre nuevo!

JOSE MARTI Junio 12 de 1875

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Friday, May 1, 2009

La Inmigración de Argentina Antes de 1908

A la inmigración se debe el maravilloso progreso de la agricultura y ella es el gran factor de la riqueza de la Argentina, que aumenta su producción y consume, la renta y comercio, desenvolviendo al mismo tiempo su capacidad industrial. La fuerza económica y étnica que aporta la inmigración levanta su consideración y crédito en el concierto de las naciones y aporta recursos abundantes para atender á las necesidades de la administración y progreso del país. Desde 1857 hasta 1905 inclusive, entraron 2,410,652 inmigrantes.

La Ley de Inmigración

Referente á los inmigrantes, los trámites seguidos son los siguientes:

A) Visita Reglamentaria

Todo buque que llega con inmigrantes á bordo, es decir, pasajeros de segunda y tercera clase, es visitado por un empleado de la oficina de inmigración, un medico de sanidad y un empleado de la prefecture marítima. Estos se asesoran de si el barco llena las condiciones requeridas de salubridad é hygiene, si ofrece comodidades para el transporte de inmigrantes, si éstos han estado bien alimentados, si la farmacia de á bordo está bien provista, etc. El comisario oye las quejas de los pasajeros y recoge los documentos que el capitán debe entregar referents al transporte de inmigrantes; todo ello su interés de estos últimos.

B) La Recepción

Los inmigrantes, después de un interrogatorio, son clasificados según sus profesiones, aptitudes y lugares adonde quieren trasladarse. Se forma una lista de los que rehusan aprovechar las ventajas que ofrece la Ley de Inmigración, y se les considera como simples viajeros, visando sus documentos de conformidad. Los de los que han estado ya en el país, se timbran también con un sello particular como “antiguos residentes.” Timbrados los pasaportes, aquellos que se acogen á la Ley de Inmigración son recibidos por los empleados del hotel de inmigrantes, y sus equipajes son trasladados allí por los criados del hotel.

C) Asistencia

Llegados al hotel, son incritos en el registro, y se les entrega un billete valedero por cinco días plazo, que puede prolongarse en caso de enfermedad. Se les aloja con separación de sexos, se les alimenta, da leche a los niños y se cuida á los enfermos.

D) Oficina nacional del Trabajo

La Oficina del Trabajo ofrece colocaciones en las localidades adonde desea trasladarse el inmigrante, indicando salario y condiciones. Cuando no hay demanda de la profesión que posee el inmigrante, la oficina se encarga de buscársela, ya sea directamente en las fábricas o talleres, ya telegrafiando á las comisiones de inmigración de provincias. A los inmigrantes que piden pasaje para un sitio donde no hacen falta obreros de su profesión, se les hace esta advertencia.

E) Transporte gratuito

Los inmigrantes y sus familiares son trasladados gratuitamente, así como sus bagajes é instrumentos profesionales, a los lugares de destino. Allí son recibidos por la commission auxiliary, y alojados y alimentados durante diez días consecutivos, hasta que hayan encontrado trabajo ó hayan partido para la localidad definitiva, en la que no hubiere commisión de inmigración.

Enciclopedia Vniversal Ilvstrada Evropeo-Americana. Publisher: ESPASA-CALPE, S. A. Madrid, Spain. Copyright: 1908 Volume:6 ARD-AZZ

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