Wednesday, July 8, 2009

Historical Facts On England & United States (9)

Topic: The Years 1648-1650

1648: (England) Eng. Civil War: Cromwell demands end of allegiance to the king; Parliamentary "Declaration" on Charles I's misdeeds; Scots begin Second Civil War, and are defeated at Preston; the king offers some concessions to Parliament, which are rejected; Parliament votes to bring Charles I to trial.

1648: (North America) New Amsterdam Governor Peter Stuyvesant appointed four fire wardens to patrol the area between the streets, inspect chimneys to be sure they had been swept properly, and to enforce the ban on wooden chimneys. Fire fighting and city politics have been intertwined ever since Stuyvesant shrewdly split these warden appointments between two Dutchmen and twoEnglishmen.

1648: (North America) Organized fire fighting began in New York in 1648 when the first Fire Ordinance was adopted by the Dutch Settlement of New Amsterdam. Fines levied for dirty chimneys provided funds for the maintenance of buckets, hooks and ladders. It also established a fire watch of eight Wardens and required that each male citizen stand his turn on watch.

1649: (England) Cromwell invades Ireland, sacking Drogheda and Wexford. England declared a Commonwealth. Charles I beheaded (Jan. 30); Prince of Wales, in exile at the Hague, takes title Charles II and is proclaimed king by the Scots in Edinburgh.

1649: (England) In Great Britain, English becomes language of all legal documents in place of Latin.

1649: (England) Free enterprise in England receives state s upport. According to official inventories, King Charles I had stud of 139 horses with 37 brood mares.

1649: (North America) The first extended reference to the shipbuilding timber of New Netherlands is found in a Holland document of 1649, referring to the soil of the province: "It produces several kinds of timber suitable for the construction of houses and ships, be they large or small, consisting of various sorts of oak, to wit: Post oak, smooth white bark, gray bark, black bark, and still another sort, which byreason of its softness is called butter oak. Various sorts of nut timber, hickory, large and small. This timber is very abundant here, and much used as firewood also, for which it is right well adapted. Chestnuts, three sort beeches, axe handle wood, ash, birch,pine, lathwood, alder, willow, thorn, with divers other species adapted to many purposes, but their names are unknown to us."

1650: (England) Dutch and English agree about respective frontiers of their N. Amer. colonies. John Churchill, future Duke of Marlborough, b. (d. 1722).

1650: (England) Opening of first coffee house in England, at Oxford. Tea first drunk in England. Sir Richard Weston (1591-1652), Eng. agriculturalist, advocates cultivation of turnips.

1650: (North America) In 1650 the Town of Hempstead passed resolutions that residents should attend public worship unless a reasonable excuse was offered, or suffer a fine of five guilders for the first offense and twenty guilders for the third offense. After the third offense the culprit was liable to corporal punishment or banishment.



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